Guideline Index

Chapter 9: Interpreting Soil and Tissue Tests

9.5 References

Abbott, T. S. (Ed.) (1985), ‘BCRI soil testing methods and interpretation’, NSW Agriculture and Fisheries, Rydalmere, NSW.

Allen, D. G., Jeffery, R. C. (1990), ‘Methods for analysis of Phosphorus in Western Australian Soils: Report of investigation No 37’, Chemistry Centre, Perth. Retrieved 28th April 2013,

Bolland, M., Russell, W., and Weaver , D. (2010) ‘Phosphorus for high rainfall pastures: Bulletin 4808’, Department of Agriculture and Food, Retrieved May 2013,

Bolland, M., Guthridge, I., Russell, W., Staines, M., Lucey, J., and Morris, M. (2011), ‘Greener Pastures Project: Managing phosphorus in dairy pastures’, Department of Agriculture, Perth. Retrieved 29th April 2013,

Burkitt, L. L., Moody, P. W., Gourley, C, J., and Hannah, M.C. (2002), ‘A simple phosphorus buffering index for Australian soils’. Australian Journal of Soil Research 40, 497 – 513.

Cass, A., McKenzie, N., and Cresswell, H. (1996), ‘Physical indicators of soil health. In “Indicators of Catchment Health – A Technical Perspective”, Eds K. Walker and and D. J. Reuter, CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne.

Colwell, J. D. (1963), ‘The estimation of phosphorus fertiliser requirements of wheat in southern New South Wales by soil analysis’, Journal of Experimental Agriculture and Animal Husbandry, 3, 190 – 8.

Department of Primary Industries Victoria, (2011), ‘Accounting for Nutrients Project: Fertiliser Budgeting Tool’, Retrieved 29th April 2013,

Department of Primary Industries Victoria, (2005), ‘Fertilising Dairy Pastures: Second Edition’, Victorian State Government, Melbourne.

Department of Primary Industries New South Wales, (2004), ‘How to interpret your soil test,’ based on information from the Soil Sense leaflet 4/92, Agdex 533, Retrieved May 2013,

Emerson, W. W. (1967), ‘A classification of soil aggregates based on their coherence in water’, Australian Journal of Soil Research, 5, 47- 58.

Emerson, W. W. (1991), ‘Structural decline of soils, assessment and prevention’, Australian Journal of Soil Research, 529, 905 – 921.

Fenton, G., (1999), ‘Planning on Liming’ in “Acid Soil Action” Leaflet No. 4 Second edition, NSW Agriculture.

Gourley, C. J. P., Melland, A. R., Waller, R. A., Awty, I. M., Smith, A. P., Peverill, K. I., Hannah, M. C. (2007), ‘Making Better Fertiliser Decisions for Grazed Pastures in Australia’, Department of Primary Industries Victoria, Ellinbank, Retrieved 29th April 2013,

Guppy, C., Bell, M., and Moody, P. (2012), ‘Interpreting soil tests in the light of P, K and S research’, Retrieved 28th April 2013,

Havlin, J.L., J.D. Beaton, S.L. Tisdale, W.L. Nelson. 1999. Soil Fertility and Fertilizers, 6th Edition. Upper Saddle River, N.J: Prentice-Hall, Inc.

Hamza M. A. (2008), ‘Understanding soil analysis data’ in Resource management technical report 327, Department of Agriculture and Food, Western Australia, Retrieved May 2013,

Hazelton, P., and Murphy, B. (2007), ‘Interpreting soil test results: What do all the numbers mean?’, G. E. Rayment and F. R. Higginson (Eds.), p 60, CSIRO Publishing, Collinwood, Melbourne.

Incitec Ltd., (1999) ‘Soil Test Interpretation Manual Nutrient Advantage: Analysis Systems’.

Kerr, H.W., and von Stieglitz, C.R. (1938). The laboratory determination of soil fertility. Technical Communication No.9, Bureau of Sugar Experiment Stations (Department of Agriculture: Brisbane).

Loveday, J., and Pyle, J. C. (1973), ‘The Emerson dispersion test and its relationship to hydraulic conductivity’. CSIRO Australian Division of Soils Technical Paper No. 15, Canberra.

Kopittke, P. M. and Menzies, N. W. (2007), ‘A Review of the Use of the Basic Cation Saturation Ratio and the “Ideal” Soil’. American Journal of Soil Science. 71:259–265

Mahesawaran, J., and Peverill, K. (1995), ‘National Soil Quality Assurance Program Report’. Australian Soil and Plant Analysis Council.

Marshall. (1947), Texture triangle, also referred to after McDonald.

McDonald, R.C., Isbell, R, FR., Speight, J, G., Walker, J., and Hopkins, M, S. (1990),

“Australian Soil and Land Survey Field Handbook” 2nd. Edition (Inkata Press: Melbourne.).

McGuiness, S., (1991), ‘Soil structure assessment kit – a guide to assessing the the structure of red duplex soil’. Department of Conservation and Environment, Bendigo, Victoria.

Metson, A. J. (1961), ‘Methods of chemical analysis for soil survey samples’. Soil Bureau Bulletin No. 12, NZ Department of Scientific and Industries Research.

New South Wales Acid Soil Action Program, (2000), ‘Understanding Soil pH: Leaflet No.2’, Retrieved 29th April 2013,

Olsen, S.R., Cole, C. V., Watanabe, F. S., and Dean, L.A. (1954), ‘Estimation of available phosphorus in soils by extraction with sodium bicarbonate’, US Department of Agriculture, Circular No.939.

Rayment, G.E., and Higginson. F. R. (1992), ‘Sampling and sample preparation’ Chapter 1 In “Australian laboratory handbook of soil and water chemical methods”, G. E. Rayment and F. R. Higginson (Eds.), pp 59 – 94, Inkata Press, Melbourne.

Rengasamy, P., and Churchman, G. J. (1999), ‘Cation exchange capacity, exchangeable cations and sodicity’, In “Soil analysis: An interpretation manual”, K. I. Peverill, L. A. Sparrow and D. J. Reuter. (Eds.), 0 pp 147 – 158., CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne.

Reid, G. and Dirou, J. (2004), ‘How to interpret your soil test’, Adapted from Soil Sense leaflet 4/92, Agdex 533. New South Wales Department of Primary industries.

Reuter, D.J., and Robinson, J.B. (1986). Plant Analysis. An Interpretation Manual. Inkata Press. Melbourne.

Slavich, P.G., and Petterson, G. H. (1993), ‘Estimating the electrical conductivity of saturated pastes extracts from 1:5 soil:water suspensions and texture’, Australian Journal of Soil Research 31, 73 – 81.

Skene, J. K. M. (1967), ‘Soil analysis as an aid to diagnosing deficiencies of phosphorus and potassium’. In “Proceedings Australian Plant Nutrition Conference, Melbourne”. Pp 146 – 53.

University of New South Wales, (2007), ‘terraGIS – Cation Exchange Capacity’, Retrieved May 2013,

University of Tasmania and the Tasmanian Institute of Agriculture, (No date), ‘Soil test guidelines for optimum dairy pasture production in Tasmania’, Retrieved April 2013,

Walkley, A., and Black, I.A. (1947). A Critical Examination of Rapid Method for Determining Organic Carbon in

Soils- effect of Variation in Digestion Conditions and of Inorganic soil constituents. Soil Science 251-64.

Weir R.G, and Cresswell G.C. (1994) ‘Plant Nutrient Disorders 4: Pastures and Field Crops’, NSW Agriculture, Inkata Press.